BACTERIA AND VIRUS SURVIVAL AND
TRANSPORT IN SOIL AND GROUNDWATER
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Survival and Transport of Enteric Bacteria and
in the Nearshore Marine Environment:
An Annotated Bibliography
George R. Heufelder and Susan G. Rask
Reproduced as Part of a Training Course on Title 5
VERTICAL SEPARATION TO GROUNDWATER
Course compiled by
Barnstable County Department of Health and the
Allen, M. J. 1981. Microbiology of ground water. JWPCF 53:1107-1109.
Literature summary on the entrainment of pathogens and indicator organisms in
groundwater. 23 refs.
Asano, T., ed. 1985. Artificial Recharge of Groundwater
Butterworth Publishing, Boston.
Berg, G.,ed. 1983. Viral Pollution of the Environment
CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL
Bitton, G. 1975. Adsorption of viruses onto surfaces in soil and water. Water
Literature review. Viruses act as electrically charged colloidal particles which may
adsorb to surfaces outside the host cells. The adsorptive interactions between viruses and
surfaces influence the behavior of viruses in soil and other environments. 8 figs.
Bouwer, S., S. C. Lance, and M. S. Riggs. 1974. High-rate land treatment II: water
quality and economic aspects of the Flushing Meadows project. JWPCF 46:844
Most fecal coliform were removed in the first 2 ft (60 cm) of soil. Infiltration of
fecal coliforms was slightly higher when initial flooding followed a dry period.
Brown, K. W., H. W. Wolf, K. C. Donnelly, and S. F. Slowey. 1979. The movement of
fecal coliforms and coliphages below septic lines. J. Environ. Qual. 8:121-125.
- Septic effluent was applied to subsurface to three soil types of 80, 41 and 7.6 % sand
content. Applied effluent averaged 1.108 x 106 plus or
minus 1 x 104 FC/100 ml. Fecal coliform were present in leachate collected 120
cm below septic lines only on a few occasions. Coliphages also showed limited mobility. 7
figs., 13 refs.
Burge, W. D. and N. K. Enkiri. 1978. Virus adsorption by five soils. J. Environ.
Adsorption rate of virus to soil was correlated with cation exchange capacity, specific
surface areas, organic content and pH of soil. Soil which did not adsorb virus had
coarsest texture and highest pH. High negative correlation with pH is due to the
amphoteric nature of virus coats; lowering soil pH increases the postive charge on the
virus particle making it more likely to adsorb to soil surface. 7 figs., 14 refs.
Cogger, C. G., L. M. Hajjar, C. L. Moe, and M. D. Sobsey. 1988. Septic system
performance on a coastal barrier island. J. Environ. Qual. 17:40 1-408.
- Evaluated effect of loading rate and water table depth on wastewater treatment from
septic absorption fields in sandy soil. When soil under the leach fields remained aerobic,
almost complete nitrification occurred and fecal coliform counts were reduced to an
average of 60 MPN per liter. However, when water tables were closer to the leach fields,
soils underneath became anaerobic and nitrogen was found predominantly as ammonia while FC
averaged over 25,000 MPN per liter. Loading rate had a significant effect on all
constituents, but was secondary to water table level.
Dizer, H., A. Nasser, and J. M. Lopez. 1984. Penetration of different human
pathogenic viruses into sand columns percolated with distilled water, groundwater, or
wastewater. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 47:409-415.
Enteroviruses and rotavirus SAl1 were applied to 80 cm sand columns at a number of
infiltration velocities. Tertiary treated effluent showed best adsorption; adsorption was
poor for secondary effluent, probably due to increased organic content. Presence of
surfactants significantly reduced adsorption. Results indicate that sand, even of low clay
content, and at infiltration velocities of 0.5 to 5 m/day, is an excellent material
for the elimination of viruses from contaminated waters. 7 figs., 22 refs.
Duboise, S. M., B. E. Moore, C. A. Sorber, and B. P. Sagik. 1979. Viruses in Soil
Systems. CRC Critical Reviews in Microbiology 9:245-285.
Extensive literature review of behavior of viruses in soils. Summary discussion points
out the need for site-specific data to predict viral behavior. 9 figs., 301 refs.
Duboise, S. M., B. E. Moore, and B. P. Sagik. 1976. Poliovirus survival and
movement in a sandy forest soil. April. Environ. Microbiol. 31:536-543.
Ionic strength and pH of soil water greatly affect poliovirus adsorption to soil. Cycles
of rainfall and effluent application, resulting in ionic gradients, caused viral elution
off soils. Poliovirus survived in soil at 4 C to 20 C for up to 84 days. 9 figs., 21 refs.
Duda, A. M., and K. D. Cromartie. 1982. Coastal pollution from septic tank
drainflelds. J. Environ. Eng. Div.. Amer. Soc. Civil Eng. 108:1265-1279.
Septic tank drainflelds installed in unsuitable soils were implicated as a major source
of coliform contamination of coastal waters. Higher levels of indicator bacteria were
found in catchments with greater number of septic systems, in both wet and dry conditions.
Authors calculate that densities of more than 0.15 septic drainflelds per acre (equals one
septic drainfield per 7 acres watershed) result in bacterial levels high enough to cause
shellfish closure. 8 figs., 17 refs.
Edmond, R. L. 1976. Survival of coliform bacteria in sewage sludge applied to a
forest clearcut and potential movement into groundwater. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
Fecal colifonn applied to soil persisted for at least 204 days. In summer, aftergrowth
of low numbers of fecal coliforms was noted. Die off rates were highest in winter. Both
total and fecal coliforms migrated to soil beneath surface, but few moved more than 5 cm.
10 figs., 12 refs.
Farrah, S. R., G. Bitton, E. M. Hoffmann, 0. Lanni, 0. C. Pancorbo, M. D. Lutrick, and
J.E. Bertrand. 1981. Survival of enteroviruses and coliform bacteria in a sludge
lagoon. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41:459-465.
Enteroviruses are efficiently retained by sludge-soil mixtures; viruses were not
detected in 40-60 foot wells monitored at the site. 6 figs., 17 refs.
Funderburg, S. W., B. F. Moore, B. P. Sagik and C. A. Sorber. 1981. Viral transport
through soil columns under conditions of saturated flow. Water Research 15:703-711.
Movement of poliovirus 1, reovirus 3 and bacteriophage 0X174 was studied in 8 different
soils. Adsorption and entrainment were related to soil cation exchange capacity (CEC),
organic content, percent clay, pH, and specific surface area. Poliovirus recovery was
correlated with low CEC and high organic carbon and clay content. Recovery of 0X174 was
related to low CEC and low organic carbon. Soil CEC values of 23 meq/ 100 g were
sufficient to remove at least 99% of poliovirus within 33 cm. 6 figs., 22 refs.
Gerba, C. P., C. Wallis, J. L. Melnick. 1975. Fate of wastewater bacteria and
viruses in soil. J. of the Irrigation and Drainage Division, Proceedings
of the American Society of Civil Engineers 101:157-175.
Literature summary. Soil moisture content, temperature, pH, availability of nutrients
and antagonism are the principle factors influencing the survival of enteric bacteria in
soils. The amount of information on virus survival in soil is very limited, but viruses
appear to survive at least as long, if not longer than enteric bacteria. 5 figs., 63 refs.
Gerba, C. P., and J. C. Lance. 1978. Poliovirus removal from primary and secondary
sewage effluent by soil filtration. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.. 36:247-251.
Primary and secondary sewage effluent applied to 240 cm soil column, using loamy sand.
Adsorption of virus to soil, and desorption by distilled water were similar for both
effluents. The greater concentration of organics in primary effluent did not appreciably
affect the removal of poliovirus by the soil. 5 figs., 22 refs.
Gerba, C. P., and S. M. Goyal. 1985. Pathogen removal from wastewater during
groundwater recharge. pp 283-317 in T. Asano, ed. Artificial Recharge of Groundwater,
Butterworth Publishing, Boston, 1985.
Review of recent information on variables affecting microorganism survival and movement
through soil, and fate of pathogens in subsurface waters, including results of field
studies. 12 figs., 99 refs.
Gerba,C. P., and S. F. McNabb. 1981. Microbial aspects of groundwater pollution. ASM
Overview of the problems associated with groundwater microbiology. Cites studies
documenting coliform travel in groundwater a distance of 900 m from site of application
and viral travel to 408 m. 21 refs.
Gilbert, R. G., C. P. Gerba, R. C. Rice, H. Bouwer, C. Wallis, and S. L. Melnick.
1976. Virus and bacteria removal from wastewater by land treatment. Appl. Environ.
Secondary sewage effluent was land-applied. After percolation through 9 meters of sandy
loam soil no viruses or Salmonella spp. were detected in well samples, and the
number of fecal coliform, fecal streptococci and total bacteria were decreased by 99.9%. 6
Goyal, S. M. and C. P. Gerba. 1979. Comparative adsorption of human enteroviruses,
simian rotavirus, and selected bacteriophages to soils. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
Viral adsorption to soil shows high variability among viral types, and among different
strains of the same virus. Adsorption was also influenced by soil type and soil pH; soils
with pH less than 5 were generally good adsorbers. Results emphasize that no one
virus or soil can be used as sole model for predicting viral adsorption. 6 figs., 30 refs.
Hagedorn, C., D. T. Hansen and G. H. Simonson. 1978. Survival and movement of fecal
indicator bacteria in soil under conditions of saturated flow. J. Environ. Quality.
E. coli and Streptococcus faecalis survived in groundwater to 32 days.
Neither bacteria was detected in wells 30 m distance on day 32, but sufficient time may
not have elapsed for travel in groundwater to this distance. Rainfall caused a peak in the
bacterial numbers in wells. 5 figs., 8 refs.
Harvey, R. W., L. H. George, R. L. Smith, and D. R. LeBlanc. 1989. Transport of
microspheres and indigenous bacteria through a sandy aquifer:results of natural and
forced-gradient tracer experiments. Environ. Sci. Technol. 23:51-56.
Fluorochrome stained bacteria, conservative tracers (Br or Cl) and bacteria-sized
(0.2-1.3 micron) microspheres having carboxylated, carbonyl or neutral surfaces were
injected into a sandy aquifer. In natural-gradient test, surface characteristics had
greatest effect on attenuation while particle size had a secondary effect. In
forced-gradient experiment, stained bacteria showed breakout well before conservative
tracer, and transport of bacteria was different from that of carboxylated microspheres of
same size. 5 figs., 20 refs.
Hunt, C. S., C. P. Gerba and I. Cech. 1980. Effects of environmental variables and
soil characteristics on virus survival in soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
Primary factors affecting virus survival in soils were temperature and viral adsorption
to soil. Viral survival was also dependent on soil moisture, presence of aerobic
microorganisms, soil levels of resin-extractable phosphorus, exchangable aluminum, and
soil pH. 12 figs., 18 refs.
Hunt, C. S., C. P. Gerba, S. C. Lance, and R. C. Rice. 1980. Survival of
enteroviruses in rapid-infiltration basins during the land application of wastewater. Annl.
Environ. Microbiol. 40:192-200.
- Poliovirus type 1 and Echovirus 1. Viruses exhibited a differential downward migration;
100 times more poliovirus than echovirus migrated 5-10 cm. after 5 days. Results indicate
that the rate of virus inactivation was dependent on rate of soil moisture loss; drying
cycles during the land application of wastewater enhance virus inactivation in soils.
Maximum survival measured was 60 cm. 9 figs., 25 refs.
Keswick, B. H. and C. P. Gerba. 1980. Viruses in Groundwater. Environmental
Science & Technology 14:1290-1297.
Literature summary with many useful charts for entrainment of viruses in groundwater,
including the effects of various parameters on entrainment. 7 figs., 56 refs.
Kibbey, H. S., C. Hagedorn, and E. L. McCoy. 1978. Use of fecal streptococci as
indicators of pollution in soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 35:711-717.
Streptococcus faecalis survived up to 12 weeks in soil under cool, moist
conditions (4 and 10 C). Freeze-thaw cycles killed the bacteria. Bacteria exhibited
variation in die-off among soil types. 8 figs., 15 refs.
Lance, S. C., C. P. Gerba, and S. L. Melnick. 1976. Virus movement in soil columns
flooded with secondary sewage effluent. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32:520-526.
Poliovirus 1 in sewage effluent traveled a maximum of 160 cm through a 250 cm column
packed with calcareous sand. Most viruses were adsorbed in the top 5 cm of soil. Flooding
with deionized water caused desorption from the soil and increased virus movement in the
soils. 99.99 % or more removal of virus would be expected after passage of secondary
effluent though 250 cm of calcareous sand unless heavy rains fell within 1 day of
application. 9 figs., 16 refs.
Lance, J. C., C. P. Gerha and S. S. Wang. 1982. Comparative movement of different
enteroviruses in soil columns. J. Environ. Qual. 11:347-351.
Travel of Echo 1, Echo 29, and Polio 1 viruses through 250 m soil columns. Greater than
99.9% of viruses were removed by 160 cm. Virus movement through loamy sand roughly
parallels travel of fecal coliform. 8 figs., 15 refs.
Lance, S. C. and C. P. Gerba. 1984. Virus movement in soil during saturated and
unsaturated flow. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 47:335-337.
Movement of poliovirus during unsaturated flow of sewage thru 250 cm. soil columns was
much less than during saturated flow. Viruses moved 160 cm under saturated flow, vs. 40 cm
during unsaturated flow. 4 figs., 13 refs.
Landry, E. F., S. M. Vaughn, M. I Thomas and C. A. Beckwith. 1979. Adsorption of
enteroviruses to soil cores and their subsequent elution by artificial rainwater. Appl.
Environ. Microbiol. 38:680-687.
Lo, S. H., and 0. 5. Sproul 1977. Polio-virus adsorption from water onto
silicate minerals. Water Research ll:653-658.
The presence of proteinaceous materials decreased the ability of silicate minerals to
adsorb virus; extraneous organic material not only competed for adsorption sites but also
desorbed the virus from the minerals. Organics in treated wastewater reduced the total
adsorption capacity and rate of adsorption. 6 figs., 18 refs.
Mack, W. N., Vue-Shoung Lu, D. B. Coohon. 1972. Isolation of poliomyelitis virus
from a contaminated well. Health Services Reports 87:271-274.
Poliovirus was isolated from drinking water from a well located more than 300 feet from
the edge of a sewage drainfleld. However, the well casing was in limestone so that
percolation through soil may not have been involved. Actual source of virus in the well
water was not determined. 2 figs., 4 refs.
Mallmann, W. L., and W. Litsky. 1951. Survival of selected enteric organisms in
various types of soil. American J. of Public Health 41:38-44.
The longevity of coliform organisms, typhoid bacilli and enterococci in soil was
prolonged with an increase in the organic content of the soil. Coliforms were found to
persist in soil for long periods, while enterococci died out rapidly. 5 figs., 13 refs.
Marzouk, V., S. M. Goyal, and C. P. Gerba. 1980. Relationship of viruses and
indicator bacteria in water and wastewater of Isreal. Water Research.
No correlation was found between indicator bacteria and the presence of viruses in
groundwater. Suggests that the expected movement of viruses vs. bacteria in groundwater
should be different. 5 figs., 33 refs.
McConnell, L. K., R. C. Sims, and B. B. Barnett. 1984. Reovirus removal and
inactivation by slow-rate sand filtration. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48:818-825.
Greatest removal of reovirus occurred in the top few centimeters of a slow sand
filtration bed. No virus was found in effluent after it passed through 1.2 m of sand
medium (99.9 % sand, 0.1 % clay). 11 figs., 38 refs.
McFeters, G. A., G. K. Bissonnette, J. J. .Jezeski, C. A. Thomson, and D. G. Stuart.
1974. Comparative survival of indicator bacteria and enteric pathogens in well water. Appl.
Comparative survival of various bacteria in flowing well water was as follows: Aeromonas
sp. > the shigellae > fecal streptococci> coliforms = some
salmonellae > Streptococcus equinus> Vibrio cholerae> Salmonella
typhi> Streptococcus bovis> Salmonella enteritidis. 6
figs., 21 refs.
Melnick, S. L., and C. P. Gerba. 1980. The Ecology of Enteroviruses in Natural
Waters. Critical Rev. Environ. Control. 10:65-93.
Extensive literature review. Topics include occurrence of enteroviruses in surface,
marine, and groundwaters, mechanisms of viral transport, and viral survival in natural waters. 11 figs., 146 refs.
Moore, B. E., B. P. Sagik, and C. A. Sorber. 1981. Viral transport to ground water
at a wastewater land application site. JWPCF 53:1492-1502.
Sewage effluent was applied to calcereous well-drained soils with moderate permeability
(1.5-5.1 cm/h), soil pH of 7.7-9.0, and CEC of 25-50 meq/100 g. Fecal
coliform and fecal streptococci were reduced by 90% with 0.46 m. infiltration depth.
Enteric viruses were found to travel to a depth of at least 1.37 m. 9 Figs., 13 refs.
Moore, S. A. and G. R. Beehier. 1984. A study of the pollution potential of
land-spread septage. J. Environ. Health 46:171-175.
- Saturated flow conditions in sandy soil resulted in movement of fecal coliforms to
shallow (3 meter) water table. 2 figs., 14 refs.
Moore, R. S., D. H. Taylor, L. S. Sturman, M. M. Reddy, and G.W. Fuhs. 1981.
Poliovirus Adsorption by 34 Minerals and Soils. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
A strong negative correlation was found between poliovirus adsorption and both the
content of organic matter and the available negative surface charge on the substrates. The
effects of surface area and pH were not strongly correlated with viral adsorption. 11
figs., 44 refs.
Rebhun, M., and J. Schwartz. 1968. Clogging and contamination processes in recharge
wells. Water Resources Research. 4:1207- 1217.
Found coliform multiplication in wells. High cofiform counts found in the repumped water
were result of bacterial multiplication (growth) on the accumulated organic matter
(consisting mostly of algal cells) which serves as a nutrient. 12 figs., 7 refs.
Reneau, R. B., and D. E. Pettry. 1975. Movements of coliform bacteria from
septic tank effluent though selected coastal plain soils of Virginia. J. Environ. Qual.
Coastal plains soils considered "marginally conducive" for sanitary disposal,
due to seasonally fluctuating water tables and/or restricting layers, were investigated.
Lateral movement of fecal coliform to at least 13.5 meters was observed, but fecal
coliform did not penetrate confining layers to reach groundwater. 4 figs., 18 refs.
Schaub, S. A., and C. A. Sorber. 1977. Virus and bacteria removal from wastewater
by rapid infiltration though soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33:609-619.
Wastewater applied to plots of unconsolidated silty sand and gravel. Indigeneous
enteroviruses and coliphage f2 tracer were sporadically detected in groundwater to
horizontal distances of 600 ft from the application zone. Fecal strep which penetrated the
surface layer also travelled this distance. Enteric indicator bacteria were concentrated
on soil surface by filtration on soil surface mat. 12 figs., 15 refs.
Schaub, S. A., and B. P. Sagik. 1975. Association of enteroviruses with
natural and artificially introduced colloidal solids in water and infectivity of
solids-associated viions. Appl. Microbiol.30:212-222.
Encephalomyocarditis viruses adsorb to introduced organic and inorganic material over a
wide range of pH and with various concentrations of metal cations. Clay-adsorbed viruses
maintained their infectivity. 9 figs., 41 refs.
Schenerman, P. R., G. Bitton, A. R. Overman, and G. E. Gifford. 1979. Transport of
viruses through organic soils and sediments. Journal of the Environmental Engineering
Division, Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers
Wetland organic soils (cypress domes) appear not to be suitable for application of
wastewater for treatment. The presence of humic substances originating from these black
organic sediments was shown to interfere with the sorptive capacity of soils and sediments
toward viruses. 10 figs., 14 refs.
Sinton, L. W. 1986. Microbial contamination of alluvial gravel aquifers by septic
tank effluent. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 28:407-425.
Fecal coliform were shown to travel 9 m from a 5.5 m deep soakage pit in an
unconfined aquifer, and 42 m from an 18 m deep injection bore in a confined aquifer. Fecal
coliform levels were reduced by factor of 3 within the septic tank. 10 figs.,26 refs.
Sobsey, M. D., C. H. Dean, M. E. Knuckles and R. A. Wagner. 1980. Interactions and
survival of enteric viruses in soil materials. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 40:92-101.
Clayey soils efficiently adsorbed poliovirus and reovirus from wastewater over a range
of pH and total dissolved solids levels. Sands and organic materials were relatively poor
adsorbents, though in some cases their ability to adsorb increased at low pH and with the
addition of total dissolved solids or divalent cations; however, they did give> 95% virus
removal from intermittently applied, unsaturated flow wastewater. Simulated rainfall
through columns easily eluted viruses off sandy soils, but did not elute viruses from
clayey soils. 10 figs., 24 refs.
Stiles, C. W., and H. R. Crohurst. 1923. The principles underlying the movement of Bacillus
coli in ground-water, with resulting pollution of wells. Public Health
E. coli was found to travel up to 65 feet after being added to the saturated zone
in fine sand (effective grain size of 0.13 mm)
Tate, R. L., III. 1978. Cultural and environmental factors affecting the longevity
of Escherichia coli in histosols. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 35:925-929.
The number of viable E. coli cells found in Pahokee Muck was approximately
threefold greater than that found in Pompano fine sand after 8 days incubation. Greatest
coliform survival was seen under anaerobic conditions. Coliform die-off appears to be
controlled by biotic factors, including protozoa. Increased coliform survival in histosol
compared to mineral soil was due to the higher organic content of the histosol 6 figs., 15
Temple. K. L., A. K. Camper, and G. A. McFeters. 1980. Survival of two
enterobacteria in feces buried in soil under field conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
Authors show persistence of fecal bacterial viability in feces to at least 8 weeks (106
reduced to l03 or 104) under field conditions during a snow free
U.S. EPA. 1987. Septic tank siting to minimize the contamination of ground water by
microorganisms. U. S. EPA Office of Groundwater Protection, Washington, D. C.
This publication outlines a rating system developed for use as a tool in siting septic
systems to minimize microrganismal contamination of groundwater. Eight factors were used
in the rating system: depth to water, net recharge, hydraulic conductivity, temperature,
soil texture, aquifer medium, aaplication rate, and distance to point of water use.
Factors are then rated, weighted, and summed to indicate relative potential for
groundwater contamination. Extensive references. 122 refs.
U.S. EPA. 1987. Ground water quality protection: state and local strategies.
EPA/600/S5-86/00l January 1987.
Summaries are presented of ten state and three local programs for groundwater
protection. A variety of technical and institutional approaches for information
management, classification, standards, source control and implementation are presented.
Vaughn, James M. and E. Landry. 1983. Viruses in soil and groundwater. Chapter 9 in
G. Berg (Ed.) Viral Pollution of the Environment CRC Press,
Boca Raton, Florida.
A comprehensive review of the literature on the subject. Useful summary tables
presented. 3 figs, 182 refs.
Vaughn, J. M., E. F. Landry, C. A. Beckwith and M. Z. Thomas. 1981. Virus removal
during groundwater recharge: effects of infiltration rate on adsorption of poliovirus to
soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41:139-147.
Tertiary-treated effluent was applied to recharge basins. High infiltration rates
(75-100 cm/hr) resulted in movement of substantial numbers of poliovirus to groundwater.
Infiltration rates of 6 cm/hr. significantly improved virus removal; highest viral removal
efficiency was seen at very low infiltration rates of 0.5-1.0 cm/hr. 9 figs., 23 refs.
Vaughn, J. M., E. F. Landry and M. Z. Thomas. 1983. Entrainment of viruses from
septic tank leach fields through a shallow, sandy soil aquifer. Appl. Environ.
Authors document travel of human enteroviruses from a subsurface wastewater disposal
system in an area of sandy unconsolidated soil with a shallow aquifer. Enteroviruses were
detected at a lateral distance of 67.05 m and at aquifer depths of 18 m. Virus occurrence
was not correlated with total or fecal coliform numbers. 5 figs., 25 refs.
Vaughn, J. M., E. F. Landry, L. S. Baranosky, C. A. Beckwith, M. C. DahI, N. C.
Delihas. 1978. Survey of human virus occurrence in wastewater recharged groundwater on
Long Island. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 36: 47-51.
Secondary- and tertiary-treated effluent was applied to recharge basins in sandy
unconsolidated soil. Viruses were detected in groundwater where the recharge basins were
located less than 35 feet (10.6 m) above the aquifer. Lateral entrainment of viruses to
45.7 m was noted at one site. 9 figs., 22 refs.
Wang, D-S, C. P. Gerba, and S. C. Lance. 1981. Effect of soil permeability on virus
removal through soil columns. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 42:83-88.
Secondarily treated wastewater was applied to 100 cm soil columns. Viral removal was
primarily determined by flow rate. At 33 cm/day sandy loam removed 99% seeded poliovirus
in first 7 cm. At 300 cm/day rubicon sand removed less than 90% in 100 cm. This study
suggests that the rate of water flow thru the soil may be the most important factor in
predicting viral movement into the groundwater. 9 figs., 23 refs.
Wellings, F. M., A. L. Lewis, C. W. Mountain, and L. M. Stark. 1975. Virus
consideration in land disposal of sewage effluents and sludge. Florida Scientist
Virus was shown to survive in groundwater for at least 28 days.3 figs., 11 refs.
Wellings, F. M., A. L. Lewis, C. W. Mountain, and L. V. Pierce. 1975. Demonstration
of virus in groundwater after effluent discharge onto soil. Appl. Microbiol.
Secondary effluent was discharged to a cypress dome; underlying soil strata was organic
matter, sand and relatively impermeable sand/clay layers. Study found viral percolation to
3.05 m depth, and 7 m subsurface lateral movement of virus. Virus survived at least 28
days in groundwater. 4 figs., 20 refs.
Yates, M. V., C. P. Gerba, and L. M. KeIley. 1985. Virus persistence in
groundwater. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49:778-781.
Temperature was found to be the single best predictor of virus persistence in
groundwater. At lower temperatures (approx. 4 C) both poliovirus 1 and echovirus 1
persisted for up to 28.8 days before a 1 LTR (log titre reduction) took place. At 26 C,
pollovirus survived 3-5 days before a 1 LTR took place. 3 figs., 19 refs.